The Vedic Philosophy
The Indian Sub-continent has given birth to billions of people who have lived and followed Vedic and Dharmic values, traditions, and culture for millennia, and it is the one land on earth that has given shelter to all currently known major faiths. This Sub-continent, also known to its inhabitants as Mother India or Bharath, has more than 40,000 years of documented history and has served as one of the bases of all wisdom and knowledge that humankind can contemplate. In other words, it has helped lay the foundation of all sciences and philosophies. It is, therefore, surprising to learn about a conference like Dismantling Global Hindutva (https://dismantlinghindutva.com ).
Here I present my conversations with contributor Mr. Nilesh Oak with the hope of encouraging many to note the unmatched value and pertinence that the Vedic civilization and culture still offer today. Following the conversation, some discussion is added to offer direction, wisdom, and knowledge that may help achieve a perfect union of spirituality , Mother Nature, and science.
My Conversations with Mr. Nilesh Oak
First, please allow me to say a few words about Mr. Nilesh Oak.
Mr. Nilesh Oak has made outstanding contributions in establishing accurate timeline boundaries of the history of the Vedic Civilization dating back to more than 40,000 years and stretching plausible antiquity up to 220,000 BCE . These include verifying a) 5561 BCE as the year of the Mahabharata war , b) 12209 BCE as the year of the Rama-Ravana War , and many more significant discoveries.
We hope you will find the following conversation valuable.
Sri: The concept of religion is nonexistent to an ideal Hindu. Equating Hinduism to religion is a modern concept of the West to help with taxonomy purposes only. Hinduism or Hindutva is nothing but Vedic philosophy itself. I interpret Vedic philosophy to be a symbiotic relationship of nature, science, and spirituality that allows us to live our daily life naturally, being one with the universe that itself is a single wave that waves through time. This philosophy serves well as the fountainhead of all modern sciences. As time evolved, the current sciences have become rootless, losing connection to nature and spiritual living. Similarly, contemporary religion has no relation to science and nature either.
Nilesh: Hinduism, Sanatana Vedic Dharma , has three foundations that naturally align with humanity’s symbiotic relationship with science, nature, and spiritual living. These three foundations are 1) Endurance in conduct (आचार-सहिष्णुता), 2) Freedom of thought (विचार-स्वातन्त्र्य) and 3) Conviction in absolute moral standards (नीतिधर्म). These three are directly aligned with the body (देह), intellect (बुद्धि) and mind (मन) which in turn are to be manifested in each individual via service (सेवा), ardent desire for the truth (सत्य) and desired balance and restraint in individual and social living (संयम).
While some aspects of service and a glimpse of relative moral standards can occasionally be seen in many religions, Hinduism is unique and exceptional in its emphasis on freedom of thought, absolute moral standards as the basis of any action, and the karma theory.
The following is what Dr. Nisa Khan, (President IEM LED Lighting Technologies, USA, and the author of “Understanding LED Illumination”), opines on Vedic Philosophy:
“The current sciences fail to know and understand that science must be first rooted in philosophy. Not just anyone’s philosophy — but an appropriate one that defines what science is suitable for in the first place. If the concept of philosophy isn’t fully understood, any thoughts, actions, arguments, etc., are either moot or useless. Philosophy is an assessment that must be rooted in our basics of being and recognizing ourselves and what is around us. This is about as natural as anything can be or must be. Vedic philosophy started in this manner and developed into something incredibly amazing over many years because the philosophy of Hinduism was right on; the subsequent developments of all subjects, including science, medicine, art, performance arts, etc., also became extremely useful and valid. Why? Because the Hindus used rational progressions from their root philosophy — which is nothing but using mathematics along the way for EVERYTHING! There is really no other way to get everything right other than what the Vedic civilization developed. Things can surely improve, and they can continue to improve as time passes. However, the basics from Vedic civilization are valid and most useful”- Dr. Nisa Khan
Monotheism Versus the Plurality of Philosophies and Manifestations
The above conversations steered me to some relevant discussions around spirituality, nature, and science. Vedic philosophy is often correlated with “Hinduism” or “Sanatana Dharma” and is sometimes even detested on the basis of its plurality. This erroneous notion often gains support in the statement that it is not justified as a religion or a philosophy because it is composed of multiple philosophies (Samkhya, Yoga, Mimamsa, Vedanta, and several others), multiple religions (Shaivism, Vaishnavism, Shaktism, and many tribal religions), multiple languages, ethnicities, and customs in the Vedic land of Bharath.
However, multiple philosophies and manifestations are not flawed because multiple philosophies and manifestations are part of nature, united within Mother Nature! Vedic philosophy, as outlined above, is nothing but understanding nature itself by means of many traditions, customs, and cultures weaved together. The natural environment is a manifestation of incredible diversity, which Hinduism captures in its philosophy of a seamless unification of spirituality, nature, and science.
Science is nothing but understanding Mother Nature through our views by means of appropriate quantification when possible. Mother Nature’s multiple flora and fauna are manifestations by which she displays her strength, beauty, and wisdom. How does that apply to our social world? Precisely the same way because the social world’s strength, beauty, and wisdom can only exist when we have a philosophy that itself is a plurality of manifestations as outlined in Vedic philosophy. This philosophy survived for more than 40,000 years weathering all the cataclysms of the social world, and it provided the foundations for mathematics, calculus, and other sciences and arts of our times. This philosophy also created an environment in society to foster the most remarkable debates ever that humankind could imagine. Who could have conceived an idea and manifest that in human society, the process of conversions through debates? One instance of the most significant debate that ever happened is between Adi Sankaracharya and Madana Mishra during the eighth century AD  (Some scholars attribute the time to a period of 600 BCE)
We cannot favor one type of rice, cotton, and wheat; nor can we favor one language, religion, ethnicity, and opinion and then expect humane humanity in all walks of life. The current patterns of our world show a struggle between accepting and rejecting plurality, and many people are still in a sleeping mode neglecting this very reality. We hope Vedic philosophy and indigenous wisdom from other native cultures will bring science, Mother Nature, and spirituality back to where they belong.
Disarray in Food and Medical Science
Incidentally, we can compare and contrast the medical science of our times to the wisdom of Ayurveda in relation to the overall health of a human being. If a person wishes to find a more permanent cure for ills today, I would recommend beginning a journey by naturally questioning today’s science of the animate world: what is at the root of modern science’s foundational problems that inevitably raised health care costs immensely? What is causing the extinction of many species, including the invaluable honey bees?
We have a plethora of examples where a total disconnect exists among science, spirituality, and nature. Some notable examples that cause us harm are DDT, asbestos, and GMO foods. Monopolistic systems created to control farming seeds result in the loss of natural varieties of plants such as rice varieties in India that offer remarkable benefits through food diversity. Another alarming aspect of modern science is the broad usage of glyphosate in agriculture that has continued for five decades. Studies have shown such usage to be the primary cause for many adverse health effects; they have also indicated glyphosate to be a likely cause of the extinction of many species, including honey bees, monarch butterflies, and many others. Why has there not been a debate regarding the global dismantling of glyphosate?
“Something terrible seems to be affecting every living thing on the planet — the insects, the animals, and the health of human beings, including children. Something is hiding in plain sight. While we cannot reduce all environmental and health problems to one insidious thing, I believe there is a common denominator. That common denominator is glyphosate” — Seneff, Stephanie, author of Toxic Legacy .
Disarray in Physics, Mathematics, and Calculus
The disconnect problem is not limited to life sciences. This section presents a few instances where we will discover disarray in physics, mathematics, and calculus.
As this subject matter is expansive and very deep, only some pointers and references are cited; for a deeper understanding, a suggestion is to do Tapasya  to understand the depths. Please recollect, we will never know the depth of any ocean by touching the water with our feet at the shore.
A good starting point to understand the disarray in mathematics, calculus, and physics is to get great insights from the works of Prof. C. K. Raju, Dr. Nisa Khan, and Mr. Jonathan Crabtree. Let us hope the following arguments are indeed a significant step forward to dive deep into the ocean of knowledge.
Problems with Mathematics and Its Teaching.
Let us begin this journey by asking: What are the problems with mathematics and its teaching? The following quote from the works of Mr. Jonathan J Crabtree will shed some light on the current state of mathematics and how our educational systems are teaching it.
“India is known to be the birthplace of modern mathematics. Yet, many Indian school-going children lack proper understanding of mathematical concepts. Australian mathematics historian Jonathan J. Crabtree was apprehensive of mathematics as a student like many of his classmates. He felt there was a need to better explain the laws and rules of mathematics. Over the years, Crabtree has retraced the origin of mathematics and linked it to ancient Indian wisdom. He found that India’s definition of zero never made it to Europe. The disconnect between western mathematical explanations from the original teachings of ancient Indian mathematicians like Brahmaputra, Mahavira(c.850) or Bhaskara(c.1150) was identified by Crabtree as a major contributing factor.” Isha Chakraborty in Business Economics, p. 38, December 01–15, 2018 
What other distortions are being forced on everyone to hinder us from understanding more profound mathematical concepts? This incredible piece of knowledge that almost all of us find difficult to digest is when we hear the arguments of Mr. Crabtree through this in “7 Shocking Truths About Math They Won’t Tell You.” Please refer to the cited source for details to understand the reasoning behind the following statements.
1. The definition of multiplication attributed to Euclid since 1570 is WRONG! (Mis-translated, so gives wrong answers)
2. The western definition of zero is WRONG! (sub-optimal)
3. Debt × Debt = Fortune meme taught is GARBAGE! (Brahmagupta never said that.)
4. Definition of integral exponentiation is WRONG!
5. To teach negative numbers are ‘less than zero’ is WRONG.
6. Multiplication is NOT repeated addition! (That’s an algorithm, so is repeated subtraction.)
7. The Logic of Elementary Math has been LOST! (HINT: It’s found in ancient China and India.)
The Origins of Calculus in India — True History
As we scratch the surface of history, it becomes apparent that it is not just the concept of zero that Vedic philosophy contributed to mathematics; it also laid the critical foundations for developing the full spectrum of mathematics and calculus of our times.
Prof. C. K. Raju’s works are authentic, and he is the first in our times to discover the source of calculus and how it was stolen from India by colonists.
“The calculus has played a key role in the development of the sciences, starting from the ‘Newtonian Revolution’. According to the ‘standard’ story, the calculus was invented independently by Leibniz and Newton. This story of indigenous development, ab initio, is now beginning to totter, like the story of the ‘Copernican Revolution’. The English- speaking world has known for over one and a half centuries that ‘Taylor’ series expansions for sine, cosine and arctangent functions were found in Indian mathematics/astronomy/timekeeping (jyotisa) texts, and specifically in the works of Madhava, Neelkantha (Tantrasangraha, 1501CE), Jyeshtadeva (Yuktibhâsâ, c. 1530 CE) etc. No one else, however, has so far studied the connection of these Indian developments to European mathematics.” Prof. C. K. Raju 
Why Was Calculus Copied from India During the Sixteenth Century?
Prof. C. K. Raju explores reasons for copying calculus from India  through some of the following arguments a) Motivation — mathematics and astronomy were widely regarded as the key to navigation which was the route to prosperity, and Pedro Nunes  was also concerned with loxodromic curves, the key aspect of Mercator’s navigational charts, which involved a problem equivalent to the fundamental theorem of calculus b) Opportunity — right from the sixteenth century, there was ample opportunity for Europeans to collect Indian mathematical-astronomical and calendrical texts as they set up a college in Cochin, Kerala in sixteenth century, c) Documentary Evidence — the Jesuits were systematically collecting and translating local texts and sending them back to Europe- particularly to Christoph Clavius, head of the Gregorian Calendar Reform Committee.
Stagnation in Physics and to Reformulating Einstein’s General Relativity.
The following arguments to discuss disarray and stagnation in physics appear to be a tall order to fathom and understand. When we contemplate and do Tapasya as defined above, we will have a greater chance to discover the reasons and root causes. One of the main reasons for this state of physics is probably not understanding deep enough concepts of calculus and mathematics and is most likely due to the absence of underlying right philosophy. Vedic philosophy that served well for millennia and helped lay the foundations of modern sciences definitely provides direction to look for guidance to discover the right philosophy for our times. Lately, the author has gained an understanding of this through many long conversations with Dr. Nisa Khan.
According to Dr. Nisa Khan, when the concepts of calculus are not understood deeply, problems relating to quantifying physical substances, such as electromagnetic radiation in space and other media will continue.
The following is what Dr. Nisa Khan opines on the concerns of physics in our times:
“When the colonists and invaders copied certain mathematics and scientific discoveries from the Vedic land, they failed to grasp the underlying essence of calculus; this failure has now led to stagnation in modern physics, and many dangerous products are therefore released in public without anyone being able to accurately measure the actual harm inflicted on humans and other species because accurate quantification of physical phenomena requires concrete knowledge of calculus.” Dr. Nisa Khan 
You may still be wondering what is specifically wrong with the physics of our times; the following quote from Dr. Nisa Khan will shed some new insights.
“Maxwell’s Equations are not fully understood in plain terms as several current LED lighting and 5G products and technologies are erroneously modeled based solely on isotropic, point radiation sources when they are, by nature, absolutely not point sources — but rather very directive or anisotropic radiation sources,” Dr. Nisa Khan 
We may now realize a problem with mathematics, particularly calculus. As certain disciplines of mathematics were copied from India during the sixteen century without a deeper understanding of the underlying concepts, we have failed to teach mathematics correctly and have missed more profound meanings of calculus, causing a deeper misunderstanding of science, mainly physics. As Dr. Nisa Khan opines, we may have the opportunity now to go back to the roots of Vedic philosophy to fix the teachings and deeper conceptual understanding of mathematics and calculus to rescue physics from stagnation and reformulate Einstein’s General Theory of Relativity and quantum mechanics. For any debate on this topic, Dr. Khan is the ideal person to begin the conversation. Cited sources in this article will help to pursue deeper insights as well.
“Fully understanding the concepts of finite, zero, infinitesimal, and infinity in relation to calculus will help overcome the stagnation of Modern Physics. These include reformulating Einstein’s General Relativity appropriately, which will then no longer contradict Quantum Mechanics,” Dr. Nisa Khan 
What should be our next step? The best step forward is to get insights into the authentic foundational philosophy of debates  from the eight century. The history of debates in those times has shown us a proper form of academic freedom that we all cherish — conversions through rigorous debate. The best move will be to bring that nature of debate to our times to discover the depths of knowledge and wisdom that lies in our plain sight in Mother Nature; the advanced science and technology of our times will aid us to further our efforts in that direction of understanding.
As we dig deeper and have a genuine debate in an auspicious spirit of academic freedom, challenges with current mathematics and physics will become apparent and could potentially lead us in a direction to save ourselves, humanity, humankind, and the living earth.
The Vedic Civilization of 40,000 years
Unfortunately, Indian history taught around the world today is substantially incorrect likely because the Indian Sub-continent has been under continuous onslaught by invaders and conquerors for more than a thousand years. In subtle ways, a kind of invasion of the Indian Sub-continent continues in our times, and hardly anyone realizes that the land is still experiencing an onslaught.
These conquerors have changed educational systems and destroyed most artifacts and libraries ; this change of the educational system has accelerated, particularly from the onset of British colonialism from the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries to the current times. Because of these historical developments and oppressions, there is a shift in the mindset to belittle the traditions and culture of this Vedic civilization; as just an example, the invaders and colonized minds in the Indian Sub-continent termed the history of Ramayana and Mahabharata as mythological.
Fortunately, Nilesh Oak’s timely scientific studies to restore the actual historical events have decisively established the historical character of the Indian epics, the Ramayana and Mahabharata, and their timelines to 12209 BCE  and 5561 BCE , respectively. He was able to discover this by exploring the hard sciences discipline by gathering the empirical evidence from astronomy, geology, hydrology, climatology, oceanography, archaeology, history of agriculture and domestication, physical anthropology, genetics, and genealogy. This research includes corroboration utilizing more than 300 and 500 pieces of astronomy-based evidence to determine the actual years of the Mahabharata and Ramayana wars.
In addition to the above discoveries, through another research endeavor based on astronomy, Mr. Nilesh Oak and his team, Dr. Anil Narayanan and Mrs. Rupa Bhaty, have also established Vedic antiquity to more than 40,000 years with specific event markers at 580 BCE, 2900 BCE, 5500 BCE, 7800 BCE, 12000 BCE, 14500 BCE, 22000 BCE, 26000 BCE, 34000 BCE, and 38000 BCE, and plausible antiquity of up to 220000 BCE .
One other very significant discovery of Mr. Nilesh Oak was to determine the age of some of the oldest portions of the Rigveda (Mandala 6, 3, 7, 4, 2) to before 24,000 years .
More relevant to the current times of medical science, one other exciting contribution is Mr. Nilesh Oak’s work to discover the timing of Sage Sushruta, the father of surgery, the originator of rhinoplasty, more than 8000 years ago (before 6000 BCE) . Sage Sushruta authored the Sushruta Samhita, considered the oldest text on plastic surgery, a volume of the Great Trilogy of Ayurvedic Medicine, the Brihat-Trayi; the other two being the Charaka Samhita (Author Charaka)and Astanga Hridaya (Author Vagbhata).
It is not clear whether the Dismantling Global Hindutva conference received an official endorsement from any university listed in the promotion because academic institutions regularly engage in various conferences citing academic freedom. Nevertheless, the conference marketers proclaim receiving an endorsement from several premier academic institutions. On the contrary, some academic institutions sent official letters to the Hindu American Foundation declaring that they did not endorse of the conference.
Understanding factual history is a prerequisite for the progress of self and society. Any alternative only leads to peril in the present and may lead to a more perilous path to our progeny. Any choices we could make lie in each of us, not in any form or shape outside of ours.
As presented in this article, Vedic philosophy of more than 40,000 years, currently known as Hinduism or Hindutva, is the perfect symbiotic union of spirituality, science, and nature. Multiple manifestations are indicators of true diversity mirroring the wisdom of Mother Nature. We can see these manifestations in Ayurveda, Yoga, Mind Science (please refer to cited reference  for understanding the true origins of Mind Sciences), and many other disciplines. In my view, the contributions of Vedic culture to science and humanity are unparalleled. Unfortunately, modern science is rapidly deviating from mathematics and the evidence-based strict discipline it once was, and now it has also distanced itself from spirituality and nature.
Universal energy is a vibrational energy that brings beauty and wisdom deeply encoded in mathematics. Mathematical theories and empirical studies can explain accurate observations of any scientific findings when we have obtained sufficient knowledge to encode nature through meaningful observations. Validation of any scientific theory, including those in life sciences, is always a reflection of Mother Nature. If we are to really uphold academic freedom, we must have debates on all major scientific and historical establishments of our time. In such debates, Vedic Philosophy along with its wisdom and knowledge must be considered. Having the right philosophy that can tune to the wisdom of Mother Nature is a prerequisite, and only then will we have the means to save humanity. As such, an effort to dismantle Hindutva is a colossal mistake.
“Do not be led by others, awaken your mind, amass your own experience, and decide for yourself your own path.” Atharva Veda
Ideas and information in this article are based upon observing the world as seen by the author. Therefore, the reader is advised to pursue his/her discovery of truthful information and what works in the context of the reader’s life experiences. The author and the publisher of this article expressly disclaim any liability arising directly or indirectly from the use of this article.
About the Author:
Sri Garapati is an independent coach, trainer, management consultant for large corporations in the U.S.A. He completed his Bachelors in Technology (Electrical and Electronics Engineering) from J.N.T. University, Hyderabad, India. Currently, he lives in Rochester, New York, U.S.A, and works as Principal at The Agility Mind Inc. His focus is on varied management thought processes to find insights on designing an effective social organization to help commercial, government, and social groups with holistic and systemic solutions. His works can be tracked at www.TheAgilityMind.com. He can be reached through his LinkedIn profile: https://www.linkedin.com/in/srinivas-garapati- 1723319/
About the Contributor:
Mr. Nilesh Oak
Mr. Nilesh Oak is an author, researcher, speaker, and corporate consultant as well as a trainer. He holds a B.S., MS in Chemical Engineering from the University of Alberta, Canada, and an executive MBA from Emory University in Atlanta, Georgia. He has published three books and writes extensively on ancient Indian history verified through rigorous scientific evidence. He is adjunct faculty at the Institute of Advanced Sciences, Dartmouth, MA, US. Nilesh can be reached through his blog at https://nileshoak.wordpress.com/ and LinkedIn profile: https://www.linkedin.com/in/nileshoak/
I would like to express my deep and sincere gratitude to Dr. Nisa Khan, President IEM LED Lighting Technologies, New Jersey, USA, and the author of “Understanding LED Illumination” (CRC Press, 2013) — a widely used university textbook in laser and LED engineering and solid-state lighting. The seeds of ideas for this article initially germinated when this author had conversations with her on this topic on social media. Her continued support and due diligence in helping to bring this article to this status are invaluable.
Except where otherwise noted, content in this article is licensed under a Creative Common Attribution 4.0 International License: Attribution-NonCommercial NoDerivatives 4.0 International. For information refer to this website: https://creativecommons.org/
Copyrights of all quotes and cited references belong to respective authors and publishers.
1) The following are a couple of interpretations of the definition of spirituality
“A philosophy to tune one’s life to the universal energy and see the entire universe as one wave that contracts and expands as it waves through time. It sees interdependencies and interrelationships with all known and unknown elements of the universe. Manifestations of this philosophy should be symbiotic to the wisdom of Mother Nature and see wisdom through actions without attaching to results and waves life through time.” Sri Garapati.
“To know one’s true nature…ontologically and epistemologically and one’s relation with everything that is animate and inanimate, visible and not visible, perceived and not perceived.” Nilesh Oak.
2) Refer to map of timeline of antiquity of the Vedic Civilization and all works of Mr. Nilesh Oak at : https://nileshoak.wordpress.com/2021/09/09/comprehending-antiquity-of-indian-civilization/
3) Oak, Nilesh Nilkanth. When Did The Mahabharata War Happen?: The Mystery of Arundhati. U.S.A: Danphe Inc., 2011.
4) Oak, Nilesh Nilkanth. The Historic Rama: Indian Civilization at the End of Pleistocene. U.S.A:CreateSpace Independent Publishing Platform, 2014.
5) Malhotra, Rajiv. Being Different An Indian Challenge to Western Universalism. New Delhi, India. HarperCollins Publishers, 2011
6) Seneff, Stephanie. Toxic Legacy. U.S.A: Chelsa Green Publishing, 2021.
7) Refer to this website for definition of Tapasya: https://www.yogapedia.com/definition/6638/tapasya
8) Refer to this page for insights on problems with teaching mathematics. https://www.jonathancrabtree.com/mathematics/wp-content/uploads/2018/08/Brahmagupta-18-BusinessEconomics.jpeg
9) Refer to this page and entire website for reasons for 7 Shocking Truths About Math They Won’t Tell You. https://www.jonathancrabtree.com/mathematics/7-shocking-truths-math-wont-tell/
And also refer to this presentation of Mr.Crabtree: https://ia802905.us.archive.org/22/items/secret_gift/Maths4Modi.pdf
10) Refer to a YouTube presentation of Prof. C. K. Raju on origins of Mathematics and Science: Not just zero- India gift of mathematics and science to the world https://youtu.be/22uZ3D5AgaE
11) Extended Summary in C. K.Raju, The Infinitesimal Calculus: How and Why it Was Imported into Europe http://ckraju.net/IndianCalculus/Bangalore.pdf
12) Refer to the following to get insights on history of calculus:
a) Please read section 3 of this article http://ckraju.net/IndianCalculus/Hawaii.pdf
And the following videos
b) Videos: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=U-r1CWU-KKM
c) MIT Talk https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=IaodCGDjqzs
d) Refer to other articles pertaining to Indian Calculus. http://ckraju.net/IndianCalculus/related_papers.htm
e) Refer to bio of Prof. C.K. Raju and his works: http://ckraju.net/cv/
13) Pedro Nunes or Nunez was a Portuguese scholar who worked in geometry, spherical trigonometry, algebra as well as geography, physics, and cosmology.
14) Refer to this internet source: https://www.researchgate.net/profile/M-Khan-36/projects
a) Why Inorganic LEDs have Inherent Glare and Extremely High Luminance b) IEEE and FCC
Should be Aware of the Dangers of Today’s 3G, 4G, and 5G Wireless Radiation Intensity
15) M. N. Khan, “Derivation and Experimental Verification of the Near-field 2D and 3D Optical
Intensities From a Finite-size Light Emitting Diode (LED),” in IEEE Photonics Journal, vol. 11,
no. 6, pp. 1–19, Dec. 2019, Art no. 8201219, doi: 10.1109/JPHOT.2019.2948816.
16) Refer to this internet source for bio and research projects of Dr. Nisa Khan: https://www.researchgate.net/profile/M-Khan-36/projects
17) Refer to this website article for insights on the authentic foundational philosophy of debates: https://www.speakingtree.in/blog/the-story-of-mandana-misra-vs-shri-adi-shankara-101544
18) Singh, Suhana. The Educational Heritage of Ancient India, Chennai, India, Notion Press, First edition, 2017: Chapter: Deathly Blow to Learning
19) Refer to a YouTube presentation of Mr.Nilesh Oak https://youtu.be/qnNJr_0TxuI
20) Refer to a YouTube presentation of an 11-part series on YouTube (playlist link attached below)
21) Refer to a YouTube presentation of Mr. Rajiv Malhotra on Indian Mind Sciences https://youtu.be/jyfHqCWp4Pc